Answers to Questions on Anatomy Review: Respiratory Structures:

1. To bring oxygen into the body and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body.

2. On left side of page, from top to bottom:  Pharynx, Trachea, Right Primary Bronchus, Right Lung, Diaphragm    On right side of page, from top to bottom:  Nasal cavity, External nares (nostrils), Larynx, Left Primary Bronchus, Left Lung

3. Air enters the nose through the external nares.  Then the air passes through the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea,  primary bronchus, and into the lungs.

4. From top to bottom: Visceral pleura, Parietal pleura, Pleural cavity

5. Covers the surface of the lungs.

6. Lines the mediastinum, the diaphragm, and the thoracic wall.

7. A thin layer of pleural fluid.

8. Assists in breathing movements by acting as a lubricant.

9. On left side of page from top to bottom:  Cartilage, smooth muscle, respiratory zone.  On right side of page from top to bottom: primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus, bronchiole, terminal bronchiole.  The conducting zone is all of the structures except respiratory zone.

10. The many branching airways that are found in the lungs.

11. Trachea, to primary bronchi, to secondary bronchi, to tertiary bronchi, to smaller bronchi, to bronchioles, to terminal bronchioles, to respiratory zone.

12. Bronchi have rings of cartilage that keep them open.  Bronchioles have no cartilage, but they do have smooth muscle in their walls.

13. To allow airflow regulation by altering the diameter of the bronchioles.

14. The conducting zone is the airway from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles.  Its function is to moisten, warm, and filter the air.

15. Clockwise around the boxed diagram: alveolar sac, alveolar duct, alveoli, respiratory bronchiole.  Clockwise around the diagram to the right, starting at 12:00: terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar sac, alveoli, alveolar duct

16. Tiny thin-walled sacs where gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone.

17. (1) In respiratory bronchioles where they are scattered in the walls.  (2) In alveolar ducts, which are completely lined by alveoli. (3) In alveolar sacs, where they are found in clusters.

18. The pulmonary arteries and branches of the pulmonary arteries.

19. The pulmonary veins and branches of the pulmonary veins.

20. The pulmonary veins.

21. They surround each alveolus.

22. From top to bottom:  Alveolar macrophage, Simple squamous epithelium (Type I Cell), Surfactant-secreting cell (Type II Cell), Capillary

23. (1) simple squamous epithelium, (2) alveolar macrophages, (3) surfactant-secreting cells

24. Gas exchange.

25.  They creep along the inner surface of the alveoli, removing debris and microbes.

26. They secrete surfactant.

27. Alveolar fluid, which is composed of water and surfactant.

28. The alveoli would collapse due to the surface tension of the water.

29. From top to bottom: simple squamous epithelium of alveolus, alveolar basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, simple squamous epithelium of capillary, interstitial fluid

30. Only two layers of simple squamous epithelium and their basement membranes which makes the membrane very thin.

31. Because pulmonary blood pressure is so low that little fluid filters out of the capillaries into the interstitial space.

32. Oxygen gas diffuses from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries.  Carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli.